1: Creed 2: Manners 3: Character 4: Act of Worship 5: Deeds
7:Masah–pass wet hand over feet
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The Fard Sunnah Nafil Prayer & Conditions for the Validity
The Fard-Obligatory Prayers:
The obligatory prayers are five
1: Zuhr —• noon, 2: Asr —• afternoon, 3: Maghrib —• sunset, 4: Ishah —• evening 5: Fajr —• dawn
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: Five prayers have been made obligatory by Allah upon the servants. Whoever comes with them, having not done anything in them that would detract form what is obligatory in them, then for him is with Allah a covenant that he will admit him into Paradise. Whoever does not come with them, then there is no covenant for him with Allah. If He wills, He will punish hi, if he wills, He will forgive him (Ahmad and other)
The Sunnat Prayers:
The importance of these prayers has been emphasized.
The Sunnah prayers include: 1: Witr —• the odd prayer, 2: Fajr —•the dawn, 3: Two Eid prayers, 4: Al-Khusuf —• the eclipse, 5: Al-Istisqa —• the rain prayers.
All these blow mentioned prayers are known as Sunan prayers that are not emphasized.
1: TahiyyatAl-Masjid —•greeting the Masjid, 2: Ar-Rawatib —•the fixed prayers that accompany the obligatory prayers, 3: Sunnat-ul-Wudhu’ —•two Rak’aht performes after ablution, 4: Ad-Dhuha —•the forenoon, 5: At-Taraweeh —•the Ramadhan voluntary night prayer, 6: Salat Al-Layl —•the voluntary night prayer.
The Nafil or Voluntary Prayers:
Any prayer that is prayed daily or nightly that is not one of the emphasized Sunnah prayers or non-emphasized Sunnah prayers mentioned above is known as a Nafil or voluntary prayers .
The Conditions Requiring Salah:
- 1: Islam: Salah is not obligatory for a disbeliever; since testifying that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger ﷺ is the primary condition for the order to perform Salah.
Allah’s Messenger Said ﷺ :
أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ، وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ
I have been commanded to fight the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the Salah and to pay the Zakah. (Agreed upon)
Holy Prophet ﷺ said Mu’adh bin Jabal:
Invite them to testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger . If they accept that from you, then inform them that Allah has made five prayers obligatory upon them in a day and a night. (Al-Bukhari)
- 2: Sanity: Salah is not obligatory for the insane.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ : عَنِ النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ وَعَنِ الصَّبِيِّ حَتَّى يَـحْتَلِمَ وَعَنِ الْمَجْنُونِ حَتَّى يَعْقِلَ
The pen is lifted form three: the one sleeping until he awakens, the child until he attains puberty, and form the insane until he attains reason. (Ahmad, Abu Dawud)
- 3: Puberty: Salah is not obligatory on those who have not attained the age of puberty.
And form the child until he attains puberty But it is recommended to order those who have not attained puberty to perform the prayer so that they become accustomed to it.
مُرُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَهُمْ أَبْنَاءُ سَبْعِ سِنِينَ ، وَاضْرِبُوهُمْ عَلَيْهَا وَهُمْ أَبْنَاءُ عَشْرٍ سِنِينَ ، وَفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ
- 4: The occurrence of its times: Salah is not obligatory before its time begins.
Allah the Almighty says: verily, As-Salah is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours. (4:103)
As is authentically reported that Jibril descended and taught the Messenger of Allah ﷺ the time of each Salah. He told him to stand and pray. So he prayed the noon prayer when the sun had reached its zenith, then he came in the afternoon. He told him to stand and pray. So he prayed the afternoon prayer when the length of a shadow of everything reached its height. Then he came at sunset. He told him to stand and pray. So he prayed after the sun had gone. Then he came for the night prayer. He told him to stand and pray, so he prayed the night prayer after the twilight had gone. Then he came in the morning at the first light of dawn.
The next day he came for the noon prayer, and he told him to stand and pray. So he prayed the noon prayer when the length of the shadow of everything had reached its height. Then he came for the afternoon prayer, he told him to stand and pray. He prayed the afternoon prayer when the length of the shadow of everything had reached its height. Then he came at the same time for sunset as before. Then he came for the night prayer after half or one third of the night had passed and prayed the night praye4. The he came when the sky began to first turn yellow and he told him to stand and pray, so he prayed the dawn prayer. Then Jibril said, “the time is what is between these two.” (Ahmad , An-Nasa’I, and At-Tirmithi)
- 5: Purity of both menstruation and postnatal blood: The woman experiencing menstruation or post-childbirth bleeding is not required to perform Salah
Because the Prophet ﷺ said:
«إِذَا أَقْبَلَتْ حَيْضَتُكِ فَاتْرُكِى الصَّلَاةَ»
when your menses begin then stop praying. (Agreed upon)
The Conditions for the Validity of Salat:
- 1: Purity of Al-Hadath Al-Asghar which is the absence of ablution, or form Al-Hadath Al-Akbar which is the absence of Ghusl, and purity of the body and garment of the one performing Salah, plus the purity of the place of worship.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
«لَا يَقْبَلُ اللهُ صَلَاةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ»
Allah does not accept Salah without purity. (Muslim)
- 2: Covering his ‘Awrah or private areas.
Allah the Almighty said: Take your adornment to every Masjid. (7:31)
Salah is not correct while the ‘Awrah is not covered. The adornment intended here is clothing that covers the private areas.The ‘Awrah for a man is between his navel and knees. A woman’s ‘Awrah is the whole body except her face and two hands.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
«لَا يَقْبَلُ اللهُ صَلَاةَ حَائِضٍ إِلَّا بِخِمَارٍ»
Allah does not accept the prayer of an adult female except with a Khimar. (Abu Dawud)
When he ﷺ was asked about a woman praying in a long shirt and a Khimar without a waist wrap, Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:
«إِذَا كَانَ الدِّرْعُ سَابِغًا يُغَطِّي ظُهُورَ قَدَمَيْهَا»
As long as the shirt is loose and covers the tops of her feet. (At-Tirmithi and Al-Hakim)
- 3: Facing the Qiblah, since prayer is not correct without doing so.
Allah the Almighty says:
And wherever you are, turn your faces towards it (when you pray). (2:150)
That is Al-Masid Al-Haram (the Ka’bah in Makkah). The exception for this requirement is not those unable to face it because of fear, an illness and the like. The requirement
Note: Does not apply in cases of inability.
As for the travelers, he is permitted to pray on the back of his mount in whichever direction it turns, be it towards the Qiblah or not. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ was seen praying, while going form Makkah to Al-Madinah,on his mount, facing whichever direction it faced. (Muslim)